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Cytokines are a class of small molecule proteins or polypeptides that can transmit information between cells. They have immune regulation and effector functions such as regulation of innate immunity, adaptive immunity, hematopoiesis, repair of damaged tissues, cell growth and differentiation. Cytokines play an important role in the immune system by regulating the intensity and duration of immune responses.Cytokine is a generic name that can be divided into interleukin (IL, e.g. (IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12). interferon (IFN), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), colony stimulating factor (CSF), chemokines and growth factors.

  • IL-1 family

    IL-1 family

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  • IL-2 family

    Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a pluripotent cytokine which plays a crucial role in the immune system response. And the IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) is a heterotrimeric protein expressed on the surface of certain immune cells, such as lymphocytes, that binds and responds to IL-2.
    IL-2R consists of three subunits, namely IL-2Rα (CD25), IL-2Rβ (CD122), and common γc (CD132). The three receptor chains are expressed separately and differently on various cell types and can assemble in different combinations and orders to generate low, intermediate, and high affinity IL-2 receptors.
    Many biopharma and biotech companies have carried out different IL-2 modification and design, including PEG modification, fusion Fc, IL-2 mutant design, bispecific antibody design, and combined immunization checkpoint antibody drug therapy and other strategies.
    Therefore, a series of structurally stable and high-affinity IL-2 receptor heterodimers and heterotrimers are of great significance for in vitro studies of the interaction between IL-2 and IL-2 receptors, and also for the antibody immunization and screening.

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  • IL-6 family

    In 1973, Interleukin 6 (IL-6) was identified as a soluble factor secreted by T cells, which is essential for the production of antibodies by B cells. Since its discovery nearly 50 years ago, the IL-6 signaling pathway has emerged as a key pathway involved in immune regulation in health and immune dysregulation in many diseases.

    In the classical pathway, IL-6 binds to both transmembrane and soluble forms of its receptor IL-6 R,namely mIL-6R and sIL-6R. After that, the complex binds to the Glycoprotein 130(gp130)and downstream signaling and gene expression are triggered. In the trans- signaling pathway, the complex of sIL-6 with the receptor binds to gp130, and intracellular signal transduction is initiated. In the next step, the JAK-STAT, RAS-RAF, and other pathways are activated, promoting cellular proliferation, differentiation, oxidative stress, and immune regulation. The classical IL-6 signal is limited to the cells (macrophages, neutrophils, T cells, etc.) that express IL-6R. But when IL-6 levels are elevated, the signal is widely expressed due to the ubiquitous nature of gp130.
    Furthermore, emerging evidence suggests that dysregulation of IL-6 contributes to a variety of disease states, including various types of cancer development, progression, and metastasis, increased levels of IL-6 are associated with a higher risk of cancer and other diseases, such as insulin resistance, asthma, coronary heart disease, advanced cancer, and can also serve as a prognostic marker for cancer. Targeting this pathway may expand to the treatment of several other symptoms, such as uveitis, neuromyelitis optica, and more recently, COVID-19 pneumonia.

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  • IL-10 family

    IL-10 family

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  • IL-12 family

    IL-12 family

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  • IL-17 family

    IL-17 family

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