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SARS-COV-2 proteins

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Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 proteins 

SARS-CoV-2 is an enveloped positive-stranded RNA virus that consists of four structural proteins including spike (S) glycoprotein, envelope (E) protein, membrane (M) protein, and nucleocapsid (N) protein. Spike glycoprotein is the most important surface protein of SARS-CoV-2, which can mediate the virus entry into human respiratory epithelial cells by interacting with cell surface receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). S, S1 and S RBD proteins are important targets in the development of SARS-COV-2 therapeutics and vaccines. The quality and application of SARS-COV-2 S, S1, S RBD and human ACE2 and other proteins are the key to the development of antiviral drugs.

ACROBiosystems has been keeping a close eye on the development of the epidemic situation and accelerating the development of SARS-COV-2 antigen proteins, antibodies, kits and other related products to facilitate the development of serologic tests, therapeutic antibodies and vaccines. ACROBiosystems has developed over 100 products related to SARS-CoV-2, including recombinant proteins, antibodies, kits, beads and so on covering the critical targets of SARS-CoV-2.

  • ACE2 proteins

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is also known as ACEH (ACE homolog), is an integral membrane protein with considerable homologous to ACE, which belongs to the peptidase M2 family. ACE2 is an exopeptidase that catalyses the conversion of angiotensin I to the nonapeptide angiotensin, or the conversion of angiotensin II to angiotensin 1-7. ACE2 may be an important regulator of heart function. In case of human coronaviruses SARS and HCoV-NL63 infections, ACE-2 serve as functional receptor for the spike glycoprotein of both coronaviruses.


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  • Envelope proteins

    The SARS-CoV-2 is composed of a double-layered lipid envelope, including Spike glycoprotein (S), Envelope protein (E), Membrane glycoprotein (M), and Nucleocapsid protein (Nucleocapsid protein, N). Among them, The amino acid sequence of the SARS-CoV-2 envelope protein is 95% identical of the SARS envelope protein.


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  • Spike proteins

    The spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 is a large type I transmembrane protein containing two subunits, S1 and S2. S1 mainly contains a receptor binding domain (RBD), which is responsible for recognizing the cell surface receptor. S2 contains basic elements needed for the membrane fusion.The S protein plays key parts in the induction of neutralizing-antibody and T-cell responses, as well as protective immunity.


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  • Nucleocapsid proteins

    Nucleocapsid protein is a most abundant protein of coronavirus. Nucleocapsid protein is a highly immunogenic phosphoprotein also implicated in viral genome replication and in modulating cell signaling pathways. While screening for ADP-ribosylated proteins during coronavirus (CoV) infection, we identified as the viral nucleocapsid (N) protein. Novel post-translation modification of the CoV N protein that may play a regulatory role for this important structural protein.


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  • SARS-CoV-2 protein mutants

    For easier and more practical discussion of the variants, the World Health Organization (WHO) has designated some variants “Variants of Concerns (VOCs)” or “Variants of Interests (VOIs)” because of their ability to significantly change the virus’ properties. Recently, WHO has renamed the dominantly circulating variants by Greek alphabets, i.e. Alpha (α) for B.1.1.7 (U.K. variant), Beta (β) for B.1.351 (South Africa), Gamma (γ) for P.1 (Brazil), Delta (γ) for B.1.617.2 (India), etc. Since the SARS-CoV-2 Delta outbreak in India in April 2021, the highly contagious Delta variant has rapidly spread all over the world and displaced Alpha to be the most prevalent variant.

    Another variant Lambda (C.37) sparked headlines this summer after the WHO noted its rapid spread in South American countries, including Peru, Ecuador, Argentina and Brazil. The WHO reported that "lambda has been associated with substantive rates of community transmission in multiple countries, with rising prevalence over time concurrent with increased COVID-19 incidence" and that more investigations would be carried out into the variant. On Nov 26th, 2021, WHO designated variant B.1.1.529 the fifth variant of concern, named Omicron. To support the research of Omicron, ACROBiosystems immediately organized an emergency response team and successfully developed a series of core research tools with high quality, including antigens, antibodies, pseudovirus, and ELISA kits.

    To limit the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 variants, surveillance is needed to investigate how some variants may impact the virus’ transmissibility, the associated disease severity, or the effectiveness of vaccines, therapeutic medicines and diagnostic tools.


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